A PDF version is available for most papers. E-mail Professor Leaper ( to request a copy.

1. Meta-Analyses

     Farkas, T., & Leaper, C. (2014). Is having an older brother or older sister related young siblings’ gender typing?: A meta-analysis. In P. J. Leman & H. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Gender and development (Current issues in developmental psychology, pp. 63-77). New York: Psychology Press.
     Leaper, C., & Robnett, R. D. (2011). Women are more likely than men to use tentative language; aren’t they?: A meta-analysis testing for gender differences and moderators. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 129-142.
     Leaper, C., & Ayres, M. (2007). A meta-analytic review of moderators of gender differences in adults' talkativeness, affiliative, and assertive speech. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 11, 328-363.
    Leaper, C., & Smith, T. E. (2004). A meta-analytic review of gender variations in children's talk: Talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech. Developmental Psychology, 40, 993-1027.
      Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2002). Are parents' gender schemas related to their children's gender-related cognitions?: A meta analysis. Developmental Psychology, 38, 615-630.
     Anderson, K. J., & Leaper, C. (1998). A meta-analysis of gender effects on conversational interruptions: Who, what, where, when, and how. Sex Roles, 39, 225-252.
     Leaper, C., Anderson, K. J., & Sanders, P. (1998). Moderators of gender effects on parents' talk to their children: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34, 3-27.

2. Theoretical and Research Reviews

      Leaper, C. (2018). Gender, dispositions, peer relations, and identity during development: Toward an integrative model. In N. K. Dess, J. Marecek, & L. C. Bell (Eds.), Gender sex, and sexualities: Psychological perspectives (pp. 219-246). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
     Leaper, C., & Bigler, R. S. (2018). Societal causes and consequences of gender-typing of children's toys. In E. S. Weisgram & L. M. Dinella (Eds.), Gender-typing of children’s toys: How early play experiences impact development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
     Leaper, C., & Brown, C. S. (2018). Sexism in childhood and adolescence: Recent trends and advances in research. Child Development Perspectives, 12, 10-15. 
     Robnett, R. D., Daniels, E., & Leaper, C. (2018). Growing up gendered: Feminist perspectives on development. In J. W. White & C. Travis (Eds.), APA handbook on the psychology of women: Vol. 1: History, theory, and battlegrounds (pp. 437-454). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Leaper, C., & Robnett, R. D. (2018). Sexism. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (2nd Ed., pp. 3502-3511). New York, NY: Springer. 
      Starr, C. E., & Leaper, C. (2018). Gender. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development (pp. 922-927). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
     Leaper, C. (2017). Further reflections on Sandra Lipsitz Bem's impact. Sex Roles., 76, 759-765. 
     Leaper, C., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2017). Gender socialization in childhood. In K. L. Nadal, S. L. Mazzula, & D. P. Rivera (Eds.), The SAGE encyclopedia of psychology and gender (pp. 745-749). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
     Bigler, R. S., & Leaper, C. (2015). Gendered language: Psychological principles, Evolving practices, and inclusive policies. Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2, 187-194.
     Farkas, T., & Leaper, C. (2015). The psychology of boys. In Y. J. Wong & S. Wester (Eds.), APA handbook of men and masculinities (pp. 357-387). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
     Leaper, C. (2015). Do I belong? Gender, peer groups, and STEM achievement. International Journal of Gender, Science, and Technology, 7, 166-179. 
     Leaper, C. (2015). Gender and social-cognitive development. In R. M. Lerner (Series Ed.), L. S. Liben & U. Muller (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed.), Vol. 2: Cognitive processes (pp. 806-853). New York, NY: Wiley.
     Friedman, C. K., Ayres, M. M., & Leaper, C. (2014). Feminist identity and well-being in college women. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life research (pp. 2253-2257). New York, NY: Springer.
     Leaper, C. (2014). Gender similarities and differences in language use. In T. Holtgraves (Ed.), Oxford handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 62-81). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
      Leaper, C., & Brown, C. S. (2014). Sexism in schools. In J. Benson (Series Ed.), L. S. Liben & R. S. Bigler (Vol. eds.), Advances in child development and behavior: The role of gender in educational contexts and outcomes (pp. 189-223). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
     Leaper, C., & Farkas, T. (2014). The socialization of gender during childhood and adolescence. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 541-565). New York, NY: Guilford.
     Leaper, C. (2013). Gender development during childhood. In P. D. Zelazo (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 327-377). New York: Oxford University Press.
     Leaper, C. (2013). Parents’ socialization of gender in children. In C. L. Martin (Topic Ed.), R. E. Tremblay, M. Boivin, & R. D. Peters (Series Eds.), Encyclopedia on early childhood development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development and Strategic Knowledge Cluster on Early Child Development; 2013:1-5. Available at:
     Leaper, C., & Robnett, R. D. (2011). Sexism. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 2641-2648). New York: Springer.
     Daniels, E., & Leaper, C. (2011). Gender issues. In B. B. Brown & M. Prinstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence: Volume 1. Normative processes in development (pp. 151-159). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
     Leaper, C. (2011). More similarities than differences in contemporary theories of social development? A plea for theory bridging. In J. B. Benson (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp. 337-378). Elsevier.
      Leaper, C. (2011). Research in developmental psychology on gender and relationships: Reflections on the past and looking into the future. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 347-356.
     Leaper, C., & Bigler, R. S. (2011). Gender. In M. Underwood & L. H. Rosen (Eds.), Social development: Relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence (pp. 289-315). New York: Guilford Press.
     Leaper, C. (2009). Gender development. In R. A. Shweder, T. R. Bidell, A. C. Dailey, S. D. Dixon, P. J. Miller, & J. Modell (Eds.), The child: An encyclopedic companion (pp. 398-402). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
     Leaper, C., & Friedman, C.K. (2007). The socialization of gender. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 561-587). New York: Guilford.
     Leaper, C., & Bigler, R. S. (2004). Commentary: Gendered language and sexist thought. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69(1), 128-142.
     Leaper, C. (2002). Parenting girls and boys. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, Volume 1: Children and parenting (2nd ed., pp. 189-225). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
     Leaper, C. (2000). The social construction and socialization of gender. In P. H. Miller & E. K. Scholnick (Eds.), Towards a feminist developmental psychology (pp. 127-152). Routledge Press.
     Leaper, C., & Anderson, K. J. (1997). Gender development and heterosexual romantic relationships during adolescence. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & S. Shulman & W. A. Collins (Issue Eds.), Romantic relationships in adolescence: Developmental perspectives (New Directions for Child Development, No. 78, pp. 85-103). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
     Leaper, C. (1994). Exploring the consequences of gender segregation on social relationships. In C. Leaper (Ed.), Childhood gender segregation: Causes and consequences (New Directions for Child Development, No. 65). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

3. Empirical Studies

     Gutierrez, B. S., Halim, M. L. D., & Leaper, C. (in press). Variations in recalled familial messages about gender in relation to emerging adults’ gender, ethnic background, and current gender attitudes. Journal of Family Studies.
    Leaper, C., Gutierrez, B. C., & Farkas, T. (in press). Ambivalent sexism and perceived relationship qualities in young adult heterosexual dating couples. Emerging Adulthood.
    Starr, C. R., Hunter, L., Dunkin, R., Honig, S., Palomino, R., & Leaper, C. (2020). Engaging in science practices in classrooms predicts increases in undergraduates’ STEM motivation, identity, and achievement: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 57, 1093-1118. 
    Walsh, A., & Leaper, C. (2020). A content analysis of gender representations in preschool children’s television. Mass Communication & Society, 23(3), 331-335. 
    Leaper, C. (2019). Young adults' conversational strategies during negotiation and self-disclosure with same-gender and mixed-gender friendships. Sex Roles, 81, 561-575.
   Leaper, C., Farkas, T., & Starr, C. E. (2019). Traditional masculinity, help avoidance, and intrinsic interest in relation to high school students’ English and math performance. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 20, 603-611.  
    Starr, C. E., & Leaper, C. (2019). Do self-concepts moderate the relationship between STEM stereotypes and motivation? Social Psychology of Education, 22, 1109-1129. 

     Leaper, C., & Starr, C. R. (2019). Helping and hindering undergraduate women's STEM motivation: Experiences with STEM encouragement, STEM-related gender bias, and sexual harassment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(2), 165-183.

     Farkas, T., & Leaper C. (2016). Chivalry’s double-edged sword: How girls’ and boys’ paternalistic attitudes relate to their possible family and work selves. Sex Roles, 74, 220-230.
     McGuire, J. E., & Leaper, C. (2016). Competition, coping, and closeness in young heterosexual adults’ same-gender friendships. Sex Roles, 74, 422-435.
      Paynter, A., & Leaper, C. (2016). Heterosexual dating double standards in undergraduate women and men. Sex Roles, 75, 393-406.
      Wilson, A. R., & Leaper, C. (2016). Bridging multidimensional of ethnic-racial and gender identity among ethnically diverse emerging adults. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 45, 1614-1637. 
      Leaper, C., Brown, C. S., & Ayres, M. M. (2013). Adolescent girls' cognitive appraisals of coping responses to sexual harassment. Psychology In the Schools, 50, 969-986.
     Robnett, R. D., & Leaper, C. (2013). Friendship groups, personal motivation, and gender in relation to high school students’ STEM career interest. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 652-664.
     Robnett, R. D., & Leaper, C. (2013). “Girls don’t propose! Ew.”: A mixed-methods examination of college marriage tradition preferences and benevolent sexism in emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28, 96-121.
     Ayres, M. M., & Leaper, C. (2012). Adolescent girls’ experiences of discrimination: An examination of coping strategies, social support, and self-esteem. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28, 479-508.
     Leaper, C., Farkas, T., & Brown, C. S. (2012). Adolescent girls' experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and English. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 41, 268-282
     Leaper, C., & Arias, D. M. College women’s feminist identity: A multidimensional analysis with implications for coping with sexism. Sex Roles, 64, 475-490.
     Brown, C.S., & Leaper, C. (2010). Latina and European American girls' experiences with academic sexism and their self-concepts in mathematics and science during adolescence. Sex Roles, 63, 860-870.
     Friedman, C. K., & Leaper, C. (2010). Sexual minority women's experiences with discrimination: Relations with identity and collective action. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 152-164.
     Brown, C. S., Manaago, A., & Leaper, C. (2009). Feminist identity development among Latina adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 152-164.
     Ayres, M. M., Friedman, C. K., & Leaper, C. (2009). Individual and situational factors related to young women’s likelihood of confronting sexism in their everyday lives. Sex Roles, 61, 441-460.
     Leaper, C., & Brown, C. S. (2008). Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls. Child Development, 79, 685-704.
     Leaper, C., & Van, S. (2008). Masculinity ideology, covert sexism, and perceived gender typicality in relation to young men’s academic motivation and choices in college. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9, 139-153.
     Friedman, C.K., Leaper, C., & Bigler, R.S. (2007). Do mothers' gender attitudes or gender-stereotyped comments predict young children's gender beliefs? Parenting: Science and Practice, 7, 357-366.
     Daniels, E., & Leaper, C. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of sport participation, peer acceptance, and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls. Sex Roles, 55, 875-880.
     Smith, T. E., & Leaper, C. (2006). Self-perceived gender typicality and the peer context during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 91-104.
     Daniels, E., Sincharoen, S., & Leaper, C. (2005). The relation between sport motives and athletic identity among adolescent girl and boy athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 28, 315-333.
     Sabattini, L., & Leaper, C. (2004). The relation between mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their division of labor in the home: Young adults' retrospective reports. Sex Roles, 50, 217-224.
     Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2003). Parent-child conversations about science: The socialization of gender inequities? Developmental Psychology, 39, 34-47.
     Leaper, C., Breed, L., Hoffman, L., & Perlman, C. A. (2002). Variations in the gender-stereotyped content of children's television cartoons across genres. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1653-1662.
     Leaper, C. (2000). Gender, affiliation, assertion, and the interactive context of parent-child play. Developmental Psychology, 36, 381-393.
     Leaper, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Shaffer, T. G. (1999). Gender effects on the communication strategies of African-American children from low-income, urban backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1489-1503.
     Anderson, K. J., & Leaper, C. (1998). Emotion talk between same- and cross-gender friends: Form and function. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 17, 421-450.
     Leaper, C. (1998). Decision-making processes between friends during a problem-solving task: Speaker and partner gender effects. Sex Roles, 39,125-133.
     Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1998). Gender effects on Mexican-descent parents' questions and scaffolding during toy play: A sequential analysis. First Language, 18, 129-147.
     Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1997). Mexican-American mothers' and fathers' cognitive demand of their preschool child: Effects of gender, parent attitudes, and play setting. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 318-332.
     Leaper, C., & Gleason, J. B. (1996). The relation of gender and play activity to parent and child communication. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19, 689-703.
     Leaper, C., & Valin, D. (1996). Predictors of Mexican-American mothers' and fathers' attitudes toward gender equality. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 343-355.
     Leaper, C., Carson, M., Baker, C., Holliday, H., Myers, S. B. (1995). Self-disclosure and listener verbal support in same-gender and cross-gender friends' conversations. Sex Roles, 33, 387-404.
     Leaper, C., & Holliday, H. (1995). Gossip processes during same-gender and cross-gender friends' conversations. Personal Relationships, 2, 237-246.
     Leaper, C. (1995). The use of "masculine" and "feminine" to describe women's and men's behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 359-369.
     Leaper, C., Leve, L., Strasser, T., & Schwartz, R. (1995). Mother-child communication sequences: Play activity, child gender, and marital status effects. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 307-327.
     Leaper, C. (1991). Influence and involvement in children's discourse: Age, gender, and partner effects. Child Development, 62, 797-811.
     Leaper, C., Hauser, S., Kremen, A., Powers, S.I., Jacobson, A.M., Noam, G.G., Weiss-Perry, B., & Follansbee, D. (1989). Adolescent-parent interactions in relation to adolescents' gender and ego development pathway: A longitudinal study. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 335-361.
     Gaines, R., Leaper, C., Monahan, C., & Weickgenant, A. (1988). Language learning and retention in young language disordered children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 18, 281-296.
     Leaper, C. (1987). Agency, communion, and gender as predictors of communication style and being liked in adult male-female dyads. Sex Roles, 16, 137-149.
     Naeser, M. A., Mazurski, P., Goodglass, H., Peraino, M., Laughlin, S., & Leaper, C. (1987). Auditory syntactic comprehension in nine aphasia groups (with CT scans) and children: differences in degree but not order of difficulty observed. Cortex, 23, 359-380.
     Leaper, C., & Emmorey, K. (1985). The discourse of thought-disordered schizophrenic children. Brain & Language, 25, 72-86.
     Greenfield, P.M., Reilly, J., Leaper, C., & Baker, N. (1985). The structural and functional status of single-word utterances and their relationship to early one-word speech. In M. Barrett (Ed.), Children's single-word speech. London: Wiley.